Afleveringen

  • Find out our thoughts on this paper and our key takeaways for the ever-changing world of workplace safety.

    Topics:

    Introduction to the paper & the Author“Adding more rules is not going to make your system safer.”The principles of safety in the paperTypes of safety systems as broken down by the paperProblems in these “Ultrasafe systems”The Summary of developments of human errorThe psychology of making mistakesThe Efficiency trade-off element in safetySuggestions in Amalberti’s conclusionTakeaway messagesAnswering the question: Why does safety get harder as systems get safer?

    Quotes:

    “Systems are good - but they are bad because humans make mistakes” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “He doesn’t believe that zero is the optimal number of human errors” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “You can’t look at mistakes in isolation of the context” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “The context and the system drive the behavior. - Dr. David Provan

    “It’s part of the human condition to accept mistakes. It is actually an important part of the way we learn and develop our understanding of things. - Dr. David Provan

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    The Safety of Work LinkedIn

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    The Paradoxes of Almost Totally Safe Transportation Systems by R. Amalberti

    Risk Management in a Dynamic society: a Modeling problem - Jens Rasmussen

    The ETTO Principle: Efficiency-Thoroughness Trade-Off: Why Things That Go Right Sometimes Go Wrong - Book by Erik Hollnagel

    Ep.81 How does simulation training develop Safety II capabilities?

    Navigating safety: Necessary Compromises and Trade-Offs - Theory and Practice - Book by R. Amalberti

  • This paper by Daniel Katz was published in 1964 and, scarily still has some very relevant takeaways for today’s safety procedures in organisations. We delve into this research and discover the ideas that Katz initiated all those years ago. The problem is that an organization cannot promote one of these concepts without negatively affecting the other. So how are organizations meant to manage this?

    We share some personal thoughts on whether or not the world of safety research has since found an answer to dealing with these two contradictory concepts.

    Topics:

    Introduction to the paperIntroduction to the Author Daniel KatzThe history of the safety research industryThree basic behaviors required from employees in all organizationsPeople’s willingness to stay in an organizationManaging dependable role performanceSpontanious initiativeFavourable attitudeCreating this motivation in employees to follow rulesCultivating innovative behaviourHow this paper remains relevant in current safety researchNo answer to this question of balancing these two behaviours

    Quotes:

    Katz is really one of the founding fathers in the field of organizational psychology. - Dr. Drew

    Rae

    It’s not just that you’re physically getting people to stay but getting them to stay and still be willing to be productive. Dr. Drew Rae

    “When we promote autonomy, we need to think about what that does to reliable role performance.” - Dr. Drew Rae

    Complex situations, clearly need complex solutions. - Dr. David Provan

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Episode 2

    The motivational basis of organizational behavior (Paper)

  • Zijn er afleveringen die ontbreken?

    Klik hier om de feed te vernieuwen.

  • This paper reveals some really interesting findings and it would be valuable for companies to take notice and possibly change the way they implement incident report recoMmendations.

    Topics:

    Introduction to the paperThe general process of an investigationThe Hypothesis The differences between the reports and their languageThe results of the three reportsDifferences in the recommendations on each of the reportsThe different ways of interpreting the resultsPractical TakeawaysNot sharing lessons learned from incidents - let others learn it for themselves by sharing the report.Summary and answer to the question

    Quotes:

    “All of the information in every report is factual, all of the information is about the same real incident that happened.” Drew Rae

    “These are plausibly three different reports that are written for that same incident but they’re in very different styles, they highlight different facts and they emphasize different things.” Drew Rae

    “Incident reports could be doing so much more for us in terms of broader safety in the organization.” David Provan

    “From the same basic facts, what you select to highlight in the report and what story you use to tell seems to be leading us toward a particular recommendation.” - Drew Rae

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Accident Report Interpretation Paper

    Episode 18 - Do Powerpoint Slides count as a safety hazard?

  • It's Modelling the Micro-Foundations of the Audit Society: Organizations and the Logic of the Audit Trail by Michael Power. This paper gets us thinking about why organizations do audits in the first place seeing as it has been proven to often decrease the efficiency of the actual process being audited. We discuss the negatives as well as the positives of audits - which both help explain why audits continue to be such a big part of safety management in organizations.

    Topics:

    What kinds of audits are happeningWhy is the number of audits increasing?Why do we keep doing audits when they seemingly do not help productivity.Academia and publication metricsThe audit societyThe foundations of an audit trailThe process model of an audit trailThe problem with audit trails.Going from push to pull when audits are initiatedWhy is it easier for some organizations to adopt auditing processes than others?Displacement from goals to methodsAudits help different organizations line up their way of thinkingPractical takeaways

    Quotes:

    “We see that even though audits are supposed to increase efficiency, that in fact, they decrease efficiency through increased bureaucracy. - Drew Rae

    “The audit process needs to aggregate multiple pieces of data, and then it has to produce a performance account, so the audit actually needs to deliver a result.” - David Provan

    “We become less reflexive about what’s going on in terms of this value subversion - so we stop worrying about are we genuinely creating a safety culture in our business and we worry more about what’s the rating coming out of these audits in terms of the safety culture.” - Drew Rae

    “Audits themselves are not improving underlying performance.” - David Provan

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Research paper: Modelling the Microfoundations of the Audit Society

  • The specific paper found some interesting results from these simulated situations - including that it was found that the debriefing, post-simulation, had a large impact on the amount of learning the participants felt they made. The doctors chat about whether the research was done properly and whether the findings could have been tested against alternative scenarios to better prove the theorized results.

    Topics:

    Individual and team skills needed to maintain safety.Safety-I vs Safety-IIIntroduction to the research paperMaritime Safety and human errorSingle-loop vs Double-loop learningSimulator programs help people learn and reflectResearch methodsResults discussionRecognizing errors and anomaliesShared knowledge to define limits of actionOperating the system with confidenceImportance of learning by doing and reflecting back afterwardComplexity and uncertainty as a factor in safety strategy.Practical Takeaways Work simulation is an effective learning processHalf of the learning comes from the debriefRead this paper if doing simulation training

    Quotes:

    “Very few advocates of Safety-II would disagree that it’s important to keep trying to identify those predictable ways that a system can fail and put in place barriers and controls and responses to those predictable ways that a system can fail.” - Dr. David Provan

    “It limits claims that you can make about just how effective the program is. Unless you’ve got a comparison, you can’t really draw a conclusion that it’s effective.” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “A lot of these scenarios are just things like minor sensor failures or errors in the display which you can imagine in an automated system, those are the things that need human intervention.” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “Safety-I is necessary but not sufficient - you need to move on to the resilient solution ” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “I don’t really think that situational complexity is what should guide your safety strategy. - Dr. Drew Rae

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Research paper

    Norwegian University of Science and Technology

    Episode 79 - How do new employees learn about safety?

    Episode 19 - Virtual Reality and Safety training

  • The paper we reference today is our own research paper published in 2018 named; Safety clutter: the accumulation and persistence of ‘safety’ work that does not contribute to operational safety. So we have done ample research when it comes to this particular topic and we’re excited to share this knowledge with you. Hopefully you will take away from this episode a better understanding of where to start looking for (and clear out) clutter in your own workplace.

    Topics:

    What is safety clutter?The three C’s ContributionConfidenceConsensusThe paper - Safety clutter: the accumulation and persistence of ‘safety’ work that does not contribute to operational safetyTypes of duplication in safety tasksGeneralization of safety tasksSymbolic application of safety tasksAttempted simplificationLeast common denominatorOverspecificationThe causes of safety clutterWhy reduce safety clutter?Ways to deal with safety clutter

    Quotes:

    “Clutter by duplication - when you literally have two activities that perform the same function, then you know that at least one out of the two is going to be unnecessary. - Drew Rae

    “They ended up having to create a hazard on the work site for the manager who was doing the critical controls inspection to check that they had properly managed the hazard.” Drew Rae

    “I found a 28 page work page work instruction on how to spray weeds on a concrete pathway with a weedspray that was biodegradable and commercially available at any supermarket.” - David Provan

    “It’s harder to remove anything that is there for safety than it is to add something that’s there for safety.” - Drew Rae

    “Did you know that some of the things we do in this organization, specifically for safety, may make our organization less safe. - David Provan

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Research paper

  • While there may be many reasons for this - this particular research paper looks at how younger workers are inducted into the workplace and how they learn about the safety practices and requirements that are expected. The findings are pretty fascinating - especially for people responsible for hiring new employees.

    Topics

    Introduction to the research paperTypes of questions researchers asked research subjectsLiterature reviewHow people learnLearning safe practicesIndustries researchedMetalworkElderly careRetailGeneral inferencesCommunity of practiceGradient towards unsafety

    Practical Takeaways

    There’s a direct link between employment practices and safetyTemporary workers are less likely to follow safety precautionsAwareness of safety and how it relates to labor-hireReflective practiceLook at what happens during a new employee’s first weekAre your formal and informal induction and onboarding processes aligned to your safety risk profile of the different roles within your organization

    Quotes:

    “Learning isn’t about uploading knowledge, it’s about creating a sequence of experiences, and each person in the experience, they reflect on that experience, they learn from that, it leads them on to new experiences.” - Drew Rae

    “When we induct workers, it’s not just about knowledge transfer, it’s not just about uploading the knowledge they need, it’s about how do we get them to start taking part in discussions and decisions and arguments and thinking about the way work happens.” - Drew Rae

    “The one thing that we maybe can maintain is the formal standards that we communicate in the induction in the hope that creating some of that tension, creates discussion.” - David Provan

    “Onboarding a person into the workplace is an investment in the person, so people are maybe likely to invest more if there’s more return.” - David Provan

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Research Paper Discussed

  • The reason we are talking about this today, is because this tactic is often used in workplace safety videos and we ask whether or not it works for everyone, how well it works for workplace safety and whether its even ethical in the first place, regardless of its efficacy.

    Topics:

    Deciding to discuss shock tactics/threat appeals in the podcastDo they have a place in organization safety management?Ethics behind using fear tacticsThe research paper introductionAbout the authorsHow does fear connect with persuasion?Too much fear-mongeringAdaptive vs maladaptive response to the message General problems with research in fear messagingPractical takeawaysSix things that determine how people respond to the message: The severity of the fear SusceptibilityRelevanceEfficacy The wear-out effectThe credibility of the message

    Quotes:

    “Just because something is effective, still doesn’t necessarily make it OK.” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “The amount of fear doesn’t seem to determine which path someone goes down, it just determines the likelihood that they are going to hit one of these paths very strongly.” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “Communication which gives people an action that they can take right at the time they receive the communication is likely to be quite useful. Communication that just generally conveys a message about safety is not.” - Dr. Drew Rae

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    The role of fear appeals in improving driver safety (Research Paper)

  • The findings of this research point to the importance of staff buy-in and a team-driven approach to safety.

    Topics:

    Introduction to research paper Seven features of safety in maternity unitsThe premise of the studyUnderstanding the process behind data collection for this studyThe Finding of the paperSix Features/themes of patient safetyRules & procedures vs social control mechanismsPatient feedbackRefining the Safety findingsCommitment to safety and improvementStaff improving working processesTechnical competence supported by formal training and informal learningTeamwork, cooperation, and positive working relationshipsReinforcing, safe, ethical behaviorsSystems and processes designed for safety -regularly reviewed and optimized.Effective coordination and the ability to mobilize quicklyGeneralization of processes isn’t always helpful

    Quotes:

    “The forces that create positive conditions for safety in frontline work may be at least partially invisible to those who create them.” - Dr. David Provan

    “Unlike last time, we’re now explicitly mentioning patients’ families, so last time it was ‘just do patient feedback’, now we’re talking about families being encouraged to share their experience.” - Dr. Drew Rae

    “These seven [Safety Findings] may or may not be relevant for other domains or contexts but the message in the paper is - go and find out for yourself what is relevant and important in your context.” - Dr. David Provan

    Resources:

    Griffith University Safety Science Innovation Lab

    The Safety of Work Podcast

    Seven features of safety in maternity units -Research Paper

    The Safety Of Work - Episode 14

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Episode 75 - How Stop-Work Decisions are Made

  • Greg makes it very clear how important it is to avoid oversimplifying the term “due diligence”. He shares how this mistake has, unfortunately, led to safety officers and businesses being held liable for incidents at their premises. Today’s conversation with Greg was incredibly insightful to me and he clarified all his examples with real-life examples.

    Topics:

    Introduction to Greg SmithPaper SafeCapacity Index vs incident count safety metrics research paper in epiWhat is due diligence?Misleading due diligence productsReasonably practicable vs due diligenceThe validity of injury ratesSite inspection limitationsThe role of health and safety reportingLearning from incidentsPractical tips from Greg Advice for safety officers meeting with the board of directors

    Quotes:

    “I find it fascinating the number of different disciplines, all landing at the same point at about the same time but without any reference to each other, I think it says something about the way that health and safety is managed at the moment.”- Greg Smith

    “Due diligence creates a positive obligation on company officers in the same way that the reasonableness elements of WHS create positive obligations on employees.”- Greg Smith

    “Injury rates from a legal perspective are not a measure of anything. They don’t demonstrate reasonably practicable, they do not demonstrate due diligence.” - Greg Smith

    “ I am not an advocate of moving from complexity to simplicity. I think we need to be careful of that because a lot of what we do in safety is not simple and by making it simple, we’re actually hiding a lot of risk.” - Greg Smit

    Resources:

    Paper Safe Book - by Greg Smith

    Forgeworks - Safety work vs Safety of Work

    A capacity index to replace flawed incident-based metrics for worker safety

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • Together, Jop and I discuss a topic on which Drew and I previously touched: We revisit how stop-work decisions are made and why this is such an interesting topic of research.

    Topics:

    Jop’s research methods.How to interpret and explain procedures.Why rules don’t always lead to a work stoppage.Why stop-work happens.The perception vs. reality of stop-work.Myths and expectations of safety culture.The main takeaway.

    Quotes:

    “I think I’ve probably been guilty myself of not fully defining what I’m talking about.”

    “Only one case I found where a rule actually led to stopping work.”

    “First of all, compared to current interventions we see around stop-work...they all paint this picture of real significant decisions...and well, I found that plenty of stop-work decisions are basically considered insignificant.”

    Resources:

    Deciding to Stop Work or Deciding How Work is Done?

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • This topic interested us mainly because of a paper we encountered. It’s a very new peer-reviewed study that has only just been published online. We will use that paper as the framing device for our conversation.

    Join us for this interesting and exciting conversation about the capacity index.

    Topics:

    The belief in required metrics.Low injury rates and what they actually mean.The regulator paradox.The six capacities.Due diligence.The problem with the study’s names for metrics.Measuring activities.Practical takeaways.

    Quotes:

    “Injury rates aren’t predictive of the future, so using them to manage safety, using them as your guide, doesn’t work.”

    “And while I think you could always argue that there are different capacities that you could measure, as well, I don’t think there is anything inherently wrong with the capacities that they have suggested.”

    “Basically, what we’re doing is we’re measuring activities and all of those things are about measuring activities. Now, unless you already know for sure that those activities provide the capacity that you’re looking for, then measuring the activity doesn’t tell you anything about capacity.”

    Resources:

    A Capacity Index to Replace Flawed Incident-Based Metrics for Worker Safety

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • As our workplaces become more automated, it becomes the task of human workers to monitor the automated actions. At times, this may require a physical response or action on behalf of the human worker. So, while the physical load of workers has been lessened, their mental and emotional load has increased.

    Tune in to hear us define pointing and calling and the ensuing discussion about its efficacy within the workplace.

    Topics:

    What is pointing and calling?The lack of research on pointing and calling.How pointing and calling potentially slows down work.Measuring mental and physical demands.Practical takeaways.

    Quotes:

    “You point your index finger directly at that thing and you say aloud what that thing is currently showing”

    “But this pointing gesture also acts as a cue to trigger this attentional shift towards the information.”

    “The researchers did not state clearly what their hypotheses were. For those of you out there who are doing research, this is a big no-no when you’re doing an experiment…”

    Resources:

    The Effects of “Finger Pointing and Calling” on Cognitive Control Processes in the Task-Switching Paradigm

  • We came across this topic, because of a conversation happening on LinkedIn. Thus, we thought it would be a good idea to dig into this subject and discuss it further.

    Listen in as we discuss what actually makes humans most visible in unsafe situations and what some studies have concluded.

    Topics:

    Why the results between lab and natural environments vary.How studies determine visibility.Which colors are best for high visibility.What makes humans most visible.Using high-vis colors to identify objects and humans.Practical takeaways.

    Quotes:

    “The general goal of this, is they just want to compare a whole heap of different factors.”

    “The ability to just spot high-vis and the ability to spot a human wearing high-vis, seem to be actually two different mental tasks.”

    “There’s been some suggestion in the research that we should actually standardize a human high-vis color.”

    Resources:

    The Roles of Garment Design and Scene Complexity in the Daytime Conspicuity of High-Visibility Safety Apparel

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • This topic came directly from our Safety of Work portal, which you can locate on our LinkedIn page. Rhys Thomas was good enough to submit this topic and also provided us with some great resources.

    Join us as we dive into this topic and decide whether double-check policies help improve safety.

    Topics:

    What double-checking is.The difference between a practice and mandatory policy.Armitage and his history of papers regarding the medical field.Deference to authority.Formal risk assessment and internal risk assessment.Independent checking.What the evidence shows.Practical takeaways.

    Quotes:

    “How do you know whether an error has happened, if no one notices it?”

    “I think you’re doing a good job of qualitative research, if readers want to then go and actually read the raw data.”

    “And I am completely unwilling to say, ‘This is a bad practice, we should get rid of it’ until we’ve got the evidence.”

    Resources:

    Double Checking Medicines: Defence Against Error or Contributory Factor?

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

    Safety of Work on LinkedIn

  • So, on today’s episode, we discuss Occupational Health and Safety management and if it can be considered a profession.

    We’d love to hear from our international listeners if our findings match their experiences.

    Topics:

    Making generalizations about work across Australia.Collecting and defining OHS knowledge.Three broad criteria for defining a profession.Defining a role and career path.The OHS body of knowledge.Claim over decisions.Technical problems and social problems.How to define a professional organization and determine which is the premiere org for your profession.Do you need to be part of a professional organization?Why there need to be professional education programs.Practical takeaways.

    Quotes:

    “A profession should have an established hierarchy, it should have some consistency in role titles, and it should have a career path.”

    “We’ve got this wonderful project called the body of knowledge, but in the professional sense, we don’t have a stable body of knowledge; we have a really contested body of knowledge…”

    “Either you put up barriers to entry and say ‘safety work should only be done by recognized professionals’. Or you say ‘we want to grow as an organization and anyone can be a recognized professional, just send us the cash’. And either way, you end up diluting what it means to be recognized as a safety professional.”

    Resources:

    The Emergence of the Occupational Health and Safety Profession in Australia

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • Russell is a safety practitioner based in New Zealand. He joins us to tell us about his work and together we wonder if safety and design processes change the design itself.

    Topics:

    Is safety and design effective?Risk shuffling.Russell’s key findings.The hierarchy of controls.The proper use of safety and design.Evaluating design to minimize risk.Practical advice from Russell.

    Quotes:

    “We don’t always have opportunities in safety science to get some objective artifacts…”

    “I’ve never heard of a designer saying they’ve got plenty of time and a ton of budget, so let’s, you know, get down and optimize for safety.”

    “And if we start by listing the operations before we list the hazards or risks, then we’re going to be in a much better place.”

    Resources:

    Russell McMullan on LinkedIn

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • Today, we plan to discuss whether safety cases are headed towards an impending crisis.

    Join us as we figure out if the work safety community is headed for disaster.

    Topics:

    Shifting the burden of proof.The notion of “anti-safety”.Making the implicit, explicit.Trends of the past.Impediments to research.Variant and process theories.Disrupting beliefs and ideas to create a more favorable outcome.Why collaboration matters.

    Quotes:

    “...It’s a little bit paradoxical: Because why do we try to identify hazards, if not making the implicit claim that by trying to identify hazards and control them, we are making our system safer?”

    “People don’t share their safety case data with anyone they don’t have to share it with.”

    “And if we can turn the reasons why people do things into theories, and then test those theories, then we’ve got good potential for changing how people do things…”

    Resources:

    Safety Cases: An Impending Crisis?

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • You may find that this conversation makes us look hypocritical, when discussing how to argue. We just want the best outcomes for all discussions regarding safety. Ultimately, this topic came out of some recent intense arguments in the safety field and we wanted to address how to constructively handle disagreements in person and online.

    Topics:

    Finding original sources.Figuring out what the original source says.Understanding context.Looking for the overall position of a paper or book.Design vs. behavior.Why new and old ideas aren’t mutually exclusive.The line between sharing and evangelizing.Knowledge and evidence that moves the debate forward.

    Quotes:

    “Unless an entire field is genuinely pseudoscience, it’s always very, very dangerous to dismiss an entire field.”

    “A lot of the time that there is a disagreement with Safety II, it’s basically people saying we shouldn’t be throwing out everything to do with Safety I. What we actually need is some kind of middle-ground between Safety I and Safety II.”

    “A lot of the time, when we argue, there’s an implicit assumption that we can only agree with one of the theories, because they’re somehow mutually exclusive.”

    Resources:

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com

  • The final chapters cover such issues as creating functional reporting systems and the pitfalls in creating such systems.

    Topics:

    Creating a solid reporting system.At what point does something become an incident?Voluntary vs. mandatory reporting.When your organization is facing prosecution.How reporting gets stifled.The problem with penalties.Looking after all parties involved in incidents.The outcomes safety professionals want.Practical takeaways.

    Quotes:

    “I think this is the struggle with those sort of systems, is that if they are used frequently, then it becomes a very normal thing...but that means that people are using that channel instead of using the line management as their channel…”

    “I think unless we work for a regulator, we need to remind ourselves that it’s not actually our job, either, to run the prosecution or even to help the prosecution.”

    “If you think your system is fair, then you should be proud of explaining to people exactly how it works.”

    Resources:

    Just Culture

    Feedback@safetyofwork.com